Real Estate in an IRA, Part 2: Managing Assets in a Self-Directed Retirement Plan

Last week’s blog discussed setting up a self-directed plan that allows real estate in your IRA. As promised, this week’s topic covers how to properly manage those assets. There are specific rules you must adhere to in order to comply with IRS regulations so your self-directed IRA works for you instead of against you.

Now that you have set up your self-directed IRA, have it properly funded, and are ready to begin looking for property there are several things to keep in mind. While self-directed retirement plans allow many different alternative investment options, there are strict guidelines relevant to prohibited transactions and disqualified persons you must be aware of. Failure to comply could cause your IRA to suffer heavy penalties or even disqualification.

When exploring real estate options, know that your IRA is not allowed to purchase property from you or from another disqualified person. Your IRA is also not allowed to sell property to you or a disqualified person. Disqualified persons include:

  • The IRA holder and his or her spouse
  • The IRA holder’s lineal descendants (children, grandparents, etc.) and their spouses
  • The IRA holders lineal ascendants (parents, grandparents, etc.)
  • Investment advisers, managers and fiduciaries
  • Any corporation, partnership, trust, or estate in which disqualified persons have a 50 percent or greater interest
  • Anyone providing services to the IRA

Another important thing you need to understand is all property your IRA acquires is owned by your IRA and not by you. Any earnings gained, whether through resale or rental income, flow directly into the account. Expenses relative to the property must be paid directly from the IRA. When purchasing real estate in your self-directed IRA, it’s critical to plan for anticipated expenses in advance, so your IRA is prepared to cover them. If you have partnered on a purchase with other parties, your IRA only pays for its percentage of repairs and also must receive only its share of income.

Additionally, you are unable to use the property for personal purposes. For example, if you own a vacation rental you or other disqualified persons may not vacation there. The real estate was purchased to build wealth for your retirement. Using the property for personal purposes before you hit retirement age would be considered a current benefit and your IRA will be penalized, if not disqualified.

You are personally not allowed to perform repairs or maintenance on real estate in your IRA. Doing so constitutes “sweat-equity” and is considered a contribution to your account. The IRS only permits contributions to an IRA to be made in cash—and sweat equity cannot be measured in value. Repairs and maintenance must be performed by a third party—who is not a disqualified person—and paid at current market rates.

On the flip side, you do not have to hire a third party to manage the property in your IRA. The IRA owner is able to manage the property as long as you don’t perform sweat equity or pay for expenses out of your own pocket. Again, all income and expenses flow directly into and out of your self-directed IRA. Rent checks and other income must be written to the IRA and deposited directly into the IRA account. Income or expenses are not allowed to flow through the IRA owner for any reason.

Hopefully it goes without saying that it is crucial you perform due diligence when looking for real estate to acquire in your IRA. You want to find a decent property in a location suited for the purpose you desire. If you want a quick rehab-and-flip, the goal would be that the cost of the property plus the money it costs your IRA to renovate is low enough for your IRA to make a profit at resale. Location is key whether conducting a rehab or acquiring rental property—you want to be as sure as you can there is a market for resale or good potential for acquiring tenants for rentals.

If you have any questions regarding real estate in your IRA, please contact Kevin Collins at AdvantaIRA Trust by calling (617) 830-1070 or emailing


Diary of a Newbie Real Estate Investor – Rehab Tour, Sat. 8/9/2014

IMG_6048  Good morning folks!

I got some incredible news from Mike and Jacqui yesterday!  They closed on their property and we are doing a Rehab Tour on Sat, 8/9/2104 at 1pm at 26 McAdams Rd, Framingham, MA.

Please RSVP to to let us know you will be there.

Check out Mike and Jacqui’s post:

mike and jacquiWe are excited to announce that we closed on 26 McAdams Rd, which is a single family home in Framingham that we picked up off market and are going to rehab and sell. It is currently in rough shape, it has been vacant for 3 years and needs a complete rehab. We will be posting about how we finanaced the project, started our company, and are managing the budget and work items for the rehab.   

We are about 1 week into the project and moving along quickly with demo and landscaping. We will be sharing renovation plans and progress pictures shortly! 

For now please check out our before rehab pictures

Have a great weekend,


How should you choose your IRA Custodian for your investing deals?

Choosing an IRA custodian is as important as choosing investments. Some custodians do not allow alternative investments to be acquired as assets using your IRA. Some self-directed IRA administrators that allow alternative investments (such as real estate investing) may restrict the types of investments they allow as holdings. Additionally, there are strict rules and regulations one must follow when purchasing assets. If you make the mistake of acquiring an asset your custodian does not allow, you and your IRA may suffer harsh penalties handed down by the IRS. The same is so if you perform a transaction that falls outside the boundaries set forth in the rules that govern retirement funds.  Access the Advanta IRA ppt that Kevin Collins presented at our meeting in June –  Retirement Revolution Presentation

If you want to control your own investment funds in your IRA, you must first make sure you open an account with an administrator that facilitates self-directed IRAs. These accounts allow a myriad of alternative investments in them, such as real estate, private lending opportunities, precious metals, oil and gas options…and much more. As the account owner, you have the freedom to choose your own investments to build wealth toward retirement. The custodian acts only at your direction to acquire assets in your account.

Even though laws governing IRAs allow real estate and other non-traditional investments in your account, not all custodians allow those assets. A recent example of this was illustrated by the tax court in a proceeding filed by Guy Dabney. Although Dabney familiarized himself with IRS allowances of assets in IRAs, he failed to comply with the rules of his IRA custodian, Charles Schwab & Co., Inc., who does not allow real estate in the IRAs they administrate. Even so, Dabney performed an action to acquire the real estate that he thought would constitute a permissible trustee-to-trustee transaction. He had Charles Schwab wire $114,000 directly from his IRA to the company selling the property and asked the property be titled “Guy M. Dabney Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. Cust. IRA Contributory.” The purchase was made, however, the property was accidentally titled in his name. Dabney was able to have that clerical error officially fixed, but Schwab still sent Dabney a 1099-R form, declaring he had taken an early distribution which was taxable to him as he was not yet of the age of 59 1/2. Dabney did not report the withdrawal on his income tax that year, stating the real estate purchase was made by the IRA and / or should be considered a trustee-to-trustee transfer because of the way the property was acquired.

In considering the case, the IRS made several determinations. First, Schwab does not permit real estate investment purchases or holdings in their accounts; second, the title company to which the $114,00 was transferred was not, in fact, an IRA trustee and therefore, no trustee-to-trustee transaction was performed. There were a few other reasons the tax court based their decision on, which can be read in full in an article published by Parker Tax Publishing, and the withdrawal was considered an early distribution—and taxable for Dabney under IRS regulations.

The main takeaway here is that even though self-directed IRAs give you control of your investment decisions—you are responsible for adhering to your IRA custodian’s own set of rules regarding investments they will allow your account to hold. Not all custodians are created equal! Due diligence in researching a custodian that is a good fit for your investment endeavors is critically important. Dabney could have avoided his unfortunate complications had he decided to roll funds from his Schwab IRA into a self-directed IRA administered by a custodian that allows real estate assets and made the purchase from that account. Be sure to select a firm that is accessible, willing to discuss your transaction, assist you in completing the required forms, and ensures you provide the proper documentation. Most importantly, a firm that give you and your retirement portfolio the personalized service you deserve.

With Boston AREIA’s vendor, Kevin Collins of AdvantaIRA, you will get the personalized service you are looking for when doing your real estate investing deals in and around the Boston area.  If you would like to learn more about how self-directed IRAs can build wealth toward retirement, please contact Kevin Collins at AdvantaIRA Trust by calling 617-830-1070 or emailing

Attention Boston Flippers – Deals are flowing

Bernadette Trafton, Chief Connector   Attention Boston Flippers, Real Estate Investors and Rehabbers in Boston, Buy and Hold investors and more!!!

Deals are flowing in and around Boston!  The last few weeks have been incredibly exciting!  Nothing pleases me more than when my new and seasoned Boston Real Estate Investors email and call me telling me about their deals!!!  If you were at Boston Area REIA last week, you would have heard our Mentee Mike Fitzpatrick talk about his first deal!  The exciting part is that Peg Graveline of JEM Property Group and I have been having almost weekly sessions with Mike and his partner Jacqui Pietrzak.  We’ve been hitting hard on finding deals, contract negotiation and more.  I know that Mike and Jacqui were probably sick and tired of hearing me push marketing and getting their website set up and more.  But, in the end that paid off!!!  Last week, a lead came in through their website that was created by our friends at Thrivehive!  Yes, I will personally connect you with them, if you’d like me to!  After the website being up for 2 months and actually live for only a month, a lead came through.  Mike and Jacqui will tell the whole story in their blog “Diary of a Newbie Real Estate Investor”, but, they got Peg on the phone and after following her guidance, put the property under contract and are working through the deal right now!

Right before the meeting, I got another email, from one of my newest investors saying that he had a property under contract in Mattapan!  He wants to wholesale this folks, so, if you are interested, contact me.  This may be an awesome opportunity for those looking to buy and hold and could be great for those Boston contractors out there who are looking to get in the game and will do the rehab themselves.

I got another phone call right before the meeting from an investor who had a deal under contract and they were looking for hard money lenders.  I saw them at the meeting and they let me know they were working with a lender and the deal was in progress!

Then I got an email from another Boston Real Estate Investor, letting me know that he had a deal.  We are still vetting everything so, I won’t get into the where’s and the what’s of it all.

I’m getting so excited about all the activity, that I’m setting up a member specific email list to send the wholesale, buy and hold and other deals that are flowing through the group!  Become a member today, to be the first to receive news of these deals!  If you need another reason to become a member, be sure to check out all of the member benefits that can save members hundreds and thousands year.  I’ve always said that it costs more NOT to be a member of BostonAREIA!  My brother, who is a contractor saved 70% on paint through the Sherwin Williams paint discount alone! It was definitely more than the $175 it costs to be an individual member!  Oh, and if you were at our last meeting and you didn’t become a member, expect an email from me with a coupon thanking you for being a visitor in June!

My life has been crazy the last few months.  My mother has been ill and in and out of the hospital, I’ve been having tenant issues, family craziness and more.  We all have this type of stuff going on in our lives.  So, do me a favor and before you let anything get to you, stop, breathe and know, as my friend Bruce Decker says, “Remember that crap is just fertilizer for future growth!”

Happy investing!


Bernadette Trafton, Boston AREIA Chief Connector


5 reasons real estate investors may want to exchange your property

Bernadette Trafton, Chief Connector   Good afternoon investors,

PFlowers594e_s Picture 2-07

Vice President Certified Exchange Specialist New England Region (877) 781-1031 Toll Free

I was talking to Patty Flowers from IPX 1031           Exchange Services the other day.  I asked her what the main reason there were for real estate investors to exchange properties and why it’s important to know about this even as a beginning investor.  She shared this article with me about the five reasons to exchange your properties.

FIVE REASONS TO EXCHANGE – A story about Appreciation, Depreciation, Cash Flow, Diversification  and Tax Deferral

If a real estate investor bought an apartment building for $100,000 in 1975 and it is now valued at $1.8M dollars, the property has appreciated significantly and is now worth eighteen times what it was in 1975. Clearly, this was a great investment. But, like all investments, one should analyze whether it is now better to hold or to divest the asset.  The apartment building is currently owned free and clear of debt. It has been owned for more than 27.5 years so it is fully depreciated and no longer eligible for annual depreciation deductions on the investor’s tax return. Reviewing the cash-flow, after property taxes, maintenance, and insurance, it produces net rental income of about $3,000 per month.

$36,000 per year on an investment property worth $1.8M amounts to 2% annual income on the investment. However, the original $100,000 investment has grown by 1800% and there is now $1.8 million dollars’ worth of equity tied up in one asset. Since interest rates are at historic lows, what better time than now, when property values are lower than they were a few years ago, to unlock some of that equity and exchange, tax deferred, into one or more properties with greater income and long-term appreciation potential?

Through an I.R.C. §1031 exchange, this real estate investor can sell his investment property and accomplish a number of tax and investment goals. A 1031 tax deferred exchange permits the investor to defer federal and state capital gains and depreciation recapture taxes. The investor can buy property with improved cash-flow, and if encumbered, with an interest deduction to be claimed. If the replacement property is greater in value than the
relinquished apartment building, then depreciation deductions will also be available for the increased basis (the difference between the purchase cost of the new property, less the gain deferred on the exchange of the old property). Additionally, because multiple properties can be acquired through a single exchange, the investor can diversify the real estate portfolio, thereby hedging the investment risk inherent in a single property.

Appreciation, depreciation, cash-flow, diversification and tax deferral are important drivers for doing a §1031 exchange. Investors should examine their real estate holdings and do the 5 point analysis suggested in this article. If repositioning a real estate portfolio is in order, the valuable tax benefits of a 1031 exchange should be considered. Investment Property Exchange Services, Inc. (IPX1031®) is a Qualified Intermediary providing a full range of tax
deferred exchange services across the country including forward, reverse and build-to-suit transactions. We look forward to helping you and/or your clients maximize qualifying investments through a §1031 exchange strategy.

Be sure to join us on June 19th when Patty breaks down the process of 1031 exchanges. 

Are you able to leverage your credit or is it holding you back?

WHEN:  Thu 5/15, 2014credit pic

WHERE:  Hyatt Place, 116 Riverside Ave, Medford, MA

Thursday 5/15; 5pm – 5:30 pm for Members of Boston AREIA ONLY before the May monthly meeting!

Members join us for a special coaching session focused on Credit!  Are you able to leverage your credit or is it holding you back?  Veteran Mortgage Pro Ric Beaudoin of Sage Mortgage.  This is not a Credit Repair session, however, Ric will cover:

• The basic facts of credit reports
• What is and is not included in the credit report or credit score
• Why use credit scores
• Components of a credit score
• Statistical weights
• Consumer rights
• Correcting and improving credit scores

P4178105Followed by OPEN NETWORKING from 5:30pm – 6:30pm, the energy has been building every month!  Make sure you bring tons off business cards and save some for the forced networking section!

Thursday’s topic is all about exit strategies…you’ve got the property under contract, NOW WHAT???

Click here for all of the meeting details!




Diary of a Newbie Real Estate Investor

Bernadette Trafton, Chief ConnectorGood morning folks, Well Mike and Jacqui have been moving forward with their real estate business.  Their website is almost complete, they’ve been doing direct mail marketing and Mike was able to go to a property with Peg and a few others with the agent he’s working with.  A little over a month ago, I got a call about a property in Newton center.  I figured that this would be a great learning opportunity for Mike.  I called my co-mentor Peg Graveline of JEM Property Group and set up a time for them to go view the property.  Mike took all the pictures and got to watch Peg negotiate and sign the contract.  In the Wednesday night mentoring sessions that we do every week, we’ve covered how to put together a package for exit strategies for a property.  This is essential when pulling together funding partners or presenting to investors you may want to wholesale the property to.  We’ve covered the importance of consistent marketing and developing relationships with Realtors.  I introduced them to my favorite account Joe Craft, CPA and in our most recent session introduced them to John Syron of Aurelian Lending to go over the possibility of using their Unsecured Lines of Credit program.  We will be doing a new webinar on this service in May.  Stay tuned.  I also sent them a property in Dorchester that came across my desk this past week.  Not sure if they went to view it, that’s for the next post.  For, now….what have Mike and Jacqui been up to over the past week? mike and jacquiUpdate: Evaluating Potential Rehab Deals Since our last post we have been working with local real estate agents to learn more about the market for single family rehab investments. Last weekend, we went out with Matt Heisler, an investor friendly real estate agent who specializes in the central and metro-west markets.  Matt understands we are looking at properties from an investment point of view and has been a great resource.  With Matt we looked at properties inside the 495 belt, but about 30 minutes away from our target market of Framingham. The first house we saw, the Cat House, was a small 900 sq ft ranch in your average working class neighborhood. We immediately noticed the smell of cat urine and that the house was pretty much a mess. Our hunch is the house is currently rented to tenants and the seller may be motivated due to the extensive deferred maintenance inside and outside of the property. To expand the house, we could potentially add value by finishing the basement and adding a garage. However, we are unsure if the addition of a garage provides a significant enough return on investment to make it worthwhile. Our research suggests you may only get a 1:1 return on the money you invest to build the garage, however you will attract a larger market of potential buyers. Kitchens and bathrooms all need to be gutted and the exterior of the house needs some cleaning up.  House has original hardwoods throughout but the current tenants have let their cat wild and don’t seem to care about cleaning up therefore flooring needs to be replaced.  We are thinking of offering $160k. Estimated rehab costs: $45-60k depending if we add a garage) Potential sale price: $250-275k. House number two, the Old Folks House, seemed much more promising and we will admit, it was a breath of fresh air walking in. No cat urine! This was a much larger ranch in a quiet hill top neighborhood.  Real estate owned property that has been on and off the market for the last year. Needs new kitchen, paint and possibly updating the basement.  The basement was finished probably 25-30 years ago and although it is large and bright with a full bath, it is outdated. We would want to refinish the basement, but are concerned about return on investment. The house is located in a beautiful neighborhood, however across the street is a large Victorian that has been converted to a nursing home.  Not really an eyesore, but definitely out of place in a neighborhood of single family homes.  Is this a deal breaker for buyers? To be on the safe side of the budget we are reducing the estimated after repair value by 5-10%.  We are thinking of offering: $200k. Estimated rehab costs: $50k. Potential sale price: $315k. As we move forward we are still refining our investment criteria for a rehab property, however we are current looking for: 3-4 bedrooms with the potential for 2 full bathrooms, hopefully a master bath or space to add one in.  If the layout is not ideal, is it easy enough to manipulate? After that we don’t really care what the inside looks like because we will probably be replacing most of it, so the uglier the better. We also look outside and at the curb appeal, is there enough yard? How is the neighborhood? Spy on the neighbors, would you buy a house here?  From a numbers perspective we are targeting a minimum of $30k profit and for houses over $300k we are targeting a profit of at least 10% of the purchase price. Stay tuned to hear about any offers we put in and if accepted, how we were able to finance the deal as new investors.  In the meantime we are sending out our next batch of direct mail letters.  With our last mailing we got one response “Please take me off your mailing list”.  Hey, at least we know the letters were read! If you want to get in touch with us please contact us at or

How does "forced networking" help you flip properties

P4178105 I have people ask me all the time, “What is ‘forced’ networking and how exactly does it help me flip properties in the Boston area?”

Forced networking is for everyone.  Originally we started doing it at Boston AREIA for the wall flowers of the group.  You know the people who are uncomfortable walking up to someone and saying, “Hi, my name is ……………….. and I’m a new investor and I want to meet…”   I wanted to give those folks a way to get business cards from people so they could call them up later and meet with them.  But, it’s turned out to be one of the favorite sections of our meetings.  For the wall flowers and everyone else as well!  During our forced networking section, we bring different groups of people to the front of the room…for example, “Can all the wholesalers come up to the front of the room…now, everyone who wants someone else to find them deals, come up and exchange business cards, don’t talk for 5 minutes, exchange business cards and move to the next person…”  This is the fastest form of speed networking that you will find.  We don’t give you 5 minutes, we give you 5 seconds to exchange business cards so that you can connect with the people you want to after the meeting in a one on one setting.  Wholesalers love it because they are able to increase their buyers list quickly.  Rehabbers/Flippers love it because they get a whole new group of people looking for properties for them.  Realtors and lenders love it because they get a whole new group of people that they can connect with where real estate is concerned.  And, you know what happens when you connect an entire group of people focused on flipping properties in some form or another?  Deals get done!  So, forced networking most definitely helps you to flip properties.   Check out some of our pictures from our last meeting…we began with a coaching session, then went to regular networking, then forced networking, then speakers for education.  If used properly, your Boston AREIA meetings will help you build your power team and help you make connections, business partners and friends that you will work with the rest of your life!

Yours in success, Bernadette Trafton, Boston AREIA Chief Connector

P4178095 P4178156 P4178155 P4178152 P4178151 P4178149 P4178140 P4178135 P4178134 P4178132 P4178131 P4178127 P4178125 P4178118 P4178115 P4178114 P4178112 P4178097 P4178088 P4178085 P4178081

What is a Hard money loan?

Bernadette Trafton, Chief ConnectorHard money loans are used daily to fund real estate projects and are typically focused on the value and after repaired value (ARV) of the property instead of focusing on the borrower’s ability to pay back the loan.  It is a real estate backed loan.  You would use hard money in instances where you can’t get traditional financing because your debt load is too high or the property won’t qualify because of the work that needs to be done to make it liveable.  Hard money is typically short term, usually the estimated amount of time it’s going to take to complete and resell the project.  Depending on the project and the lender you are working with, this may include the cost of the rehab.  And, typically a hard money lender will want you to bring money to the table so that you have “skin in the game”.

Hard money loans got their name because they are typically higher risk and the payback percentage and points associated with the loan are higher than traditional loans.  You maybe looking at 2-5 or more points depending on the deal and 12-15 percent.  Now don’t freak out.  It sounds like a lot, but, if it allows you to do a project where you can earn $30k or more after all fees and such are paid, in a short period of time, it’s worth it.  Just, remember, the property is the collateral and just like a traditional lender can foreclose, so can your hard money lender.  But, trust me, they don’t want to foreclose and they don’t really want the property, they want the money and interest to put into more deals so that their money is consistently cycling through deals and making more money.  It is expensive though, so if you can find private money through family, friends and networking connections, go that route first.

Be sure to “dig your well” before you are thirsty.  Let friends and family know what you are doing.  Let them know that you are working with a team of experts (at Boston AREIA, of course) who guide you through deals.  The folks that are interested in “getting in on that” will let you know.  Just don’t be shy about what you are doing.  And, when you hear success stories about someone flipping a property or flipping a wholesale contract, let them know.  You can even invite them to come with you to Boston AREIA so they can meet seasoned investors and can become more comfortable.  They can also meet folks like Kevin Collins of Advanta IRA who can explain how they can invest through their IRA.

There will be times that you will need hard money to get your deals done.  That’s ok.  Your goal is to develop long term relationships with a few lenders.  The longer the relationship and the more deals you do, typically the less it will cost you to borrow the money for your deals over time.  Hard money lenders appreciate those long term relationships that offer repeat business just as much as you appreciate knowing how you will get your deals funded.  When looking for a lender, please contact me!  I work with a few trusted sources in the Boston area that I’ve known for quite a few years.  I can make a connection for you.  Typically they appreciate it more if you are bringing a possible deal to the table, but, it’s not absolutely necessary.  These folks can also be used as a fail safe if you will.  For example, you’ve got the property under contract, with a few contingencies so that you can get out of the deal (that’s another topic) if need be.  You aren’t sure that you ran your numbers right and you are nervous.  That’s ok, these folks will analyze the deal and they will let you know if you are on track.  If it’s a deal, they will lend.  If it’s not a deal, they will let you know and won’t lend.  I have one who has been known to restructure deals so they do make sense for both the borrower and his company.

As always, if you have questions, feel free to reach out to me!  I’m here to help!

Yours in success!

Bernadette Trafton, Boston AREIA Chief Connector


Diary of a Newbie Real Estate Investor


Direct mail and a Website Logo Contest

Jacqui and I are still scouring the market to try and find a good rehab deal, and recently we have been focused on direct mail and our website development. It’s been about two weeks since we sent out our first round of direct mail marketing. No responses to date, but we are optimistic that if we stick with it we will find a good rehab deal. We are continuing to refine and add to our marketing list that we are using for direct mail. Our list was created using the following data sources: expired and removed listings from MLS, foreclosures, and houses that we identified by driving for dollars and looked up in the public record.

To try and keep things organized we are also in the process of setting up our own website. We are working with Thrivehive to design the website and are utilizing the marketing platform. The Thrivehive marketing platform provides you everything that you need to create tracked phone lines and to start building a database of potentials sellers, buyers, or others. We are looking forward to using these capabilities to track the effectiveness of our direct mail marketing.

We were shocked that we actually had our first lead come in a few weeks ago when an absentee landlord found our webpage after extensive google searching and contacted us.

The owner lived on the South Shore and was interested in selling a six family apartment building that he owned in the Framingham area. We checked out the property and initially were not very impressed with the location or the condition of the building so we didn’t investigate or move forward. A week later I called the owner back because a friend of mind provided me with more information about the specific neighborhood the apartment was located in and suggested it might be worth a second look. Go figure when I contacted the owner back the property was already under agreement by another investor. Lesson learned – do your research and move quickly.

We were shocked that such a barebones website could actually generate a credible lead. We are excited about redesigning our site with Thrivehive’s help and will have something available soon that can help us to keep the leads coming!

We are also looking to pick a logo for our company Fitz Property. We have used a logo design website and have narrowed the top designs for you to vote. We would love your input. Also if you think you have a better logo idea, we want your submission! If we select your design as our logo we will offer a $200 prize. Please submit any ideas to and

Thanks for reading!

Mike and Jacqui

1 fitzproperty4